cities along the Trans Siberian Railway
km of Transsib: the station Sverdlovsk-Passenger.
The centre of Sverdlovsk region RF.
Time zone: Moscow +2.
Was founded: in 1723.
Former names: Yekaterinburg (before 1924), Sverdlovsk (1924-1991).
56-50 d.n., 60-43 d.e. The city is situated at east slope of
the Middle Ural along bank of Iset r. (Tobol tributary).
Population: 423 000 (1939); 779 000 (1959); 1 298 000 (1989);
1 270 700 (1999).
Average temperatures: January -16, April +2, July +17, October
Metro (from 1991, 1 line). Tram, trolleybus.
map of the city
details: In 1872 construction of the railway Perm - Nizhniy
Tagil - Yekaterinburg began.
The first station (now military) was built in 1881, architect Gubonin.
The second station (which worked until 1998, and now it's on reconstruction)
was built in 1910, arch. K. T. Babykin, and was one-storied. But
in 1939 it was reconstructed (arch. G. P. Valenkov and V. I. Smirnov)
and quite possibly owing to moving of passenger transportations
to the north way of Transsib. The new terminus (modern, attached
to the station of 1939) was made available in 1994. Though it was
another in project - a trestle above tracks and horizontal escalator
to metro were planned but ones managed with new tunnel. The station
Sverdlovsk-Passenger was earlier named Yekaterinburg-I and Shartash
was named Yekaterinburg-II (it was this station where Nikolai II
was brougth in 1918.
Economics: Leading branches: engineering (mainly
heavy) and metal-working. IA "Uralmash", the M. I. Kalinin
engineering plant, IA "Uralian optics-mechanical plant",
the plant "Yralkhimmash" (equipment for chemical industry),
"Uralelectrotyazhmash" (the main Russian supplier of large
electric machines), turbo-motors plant. Plants: of transport engineering,
"Pnevmostroymashina", bearing, the V. V. Vorovskoy engineering,
"Sverdlesmash", of trade engineering, compressor, instrumental
etc. Conspicuous position belongs to ferrous metallurgy - Verkh-Isetskiy
metallurgical works, steel-casting departments of leading engineering
plants. There next branches develop: chemical - plants: of rubber-technical
products, tyre, of plastic materials etc.; chemical-pharmaceutical
- plants: of medical preparations, of antibiotics production. Leading
enterprises of light industry - worsted combine, IA "Clothes"
and "Uralobuv", leather-haberdashery association "Zvezda",
skinnery factory. Large manufacture of building materials. Products
of "Uralian gems" plant are widely known.
Science, education: There are about 140 research,
development and design institutes in the city. Uralian centre of
RAS. Uralian state university. Institutes: polytechnic, mining,
architectural, medical, pedagogical, agricultural, electro-mechanical,
engineers of railway transport, law, timber-technical institute
Culture and museums: Theatres: the A. V. Lunacharskiy
of opera and ballet, dramatic, of musical comedy, children's, puppet-show.
Philharmonic. Circus. Museums: of regional studies, of Uralian mountains,
the D. N. Mamin-Sibiryak literary, house-museum of P. P. Bazhov.
Art gallery (was founded in 1936 - the largest collection of Kaslino
castings including unique Kaslino cast-iron pavilion - the gold
medalist at World exhibition in Paris in 1900). Museum of history
of medicine, Museum of Uralian combat glory and Uralian war okrug
Architecture and remarkable: Yekaterinburg extends
from west to east for 15 km, from north to south for 26 km. Iset
river dividing the city into the west and east parts was turned
into system of steppedly situated reservoirs (the largest is Verkhne-Isetskiy
pond, another ones - Gorodskoy, Parkovya and Nizhneisetskiy). There
are numerous buildings of the 18 - the beginning of the 19 c.c in
classisim style in Yekaterinburg: Mining office (1737-39, was reconstructed
in 1833-35 by the project of architect M. P. Malakhov), former estate
of Rastorguev-Kharitonov (1794-1824, arch. Malakhov), Malakhov's
house (1817-20) etc. At the place of metallurgical plant built in
1723, the historical square with blocks of rocks from various regions
of Ural area was created.
The city was founded in 1721 by V. N. Tatishcev
as mining-works, cultural and trade centre of Ural. November 7(18)
1723 when the first phase of Goverment metallurgical plant was put
into operation and extensive city building developed is considered
the official date of the foundation. Iset plant and fortress at
it soon was named Yekaterinburg (in honor of empress Catherine 2nd).
Uralian mining administration and Mining-works schhol used to be
in Yekaterinburg. Verh-Isetskiy, Verkhneuktusskiy (Yelizavetinskiy)
metallurgical plants were built near the city, later those merged
with Yekaterinburg. In the 18 c. the industry of stone processing
sprang up in Yekaterinburg (in 1751 lapidary factory on manufacture
of vases, caskets and other products from malachite, porphyry was
founded). In 1763 the Siberian road was laid from Moscow via Yekaterinburg
to Siberia . From 1781 Yekaterinburg was the centre of Yekaterinburg
region, from 1791 a capital city of Perm province. Yekaterinburg
played a large role in the creation of gold-mining industry in Russia.
Here gold ores, mined in neighboring mines, were smelted. From the
1840th Yekaterinburg becomes a centre of metalwork and from the
end of the 19 c. - the significant railway centre in Ural (in 1878
it was connected with Perm by railway). On the night of 17th of
July, 1918, the former Russian emperor Nikolai II and his family
were executed in Yekaterinburg. In the beginning of the 20 c. Yekaterinburg
was of the largest capital city in European part of Russia. From
1919 the centre of Yekaterinburg province, from 1923 - of Ural ragion.
In 1924-91 it was renamed Sverdlovsk (in honor of Ya. M. Sverdlov).
From 1934 the city was the centre of Sverdlovsk region. Since the
1930th numerous large plants, mainly engineering and metal works
km of Transsib: the station Novosibirsk-Main.
The centre of Novosibirsk region RF.
Time zone : Moscow +3.
Was founded: in 1893.
Former names: Novaya Derevnya (1893-1894), Alexandrovskiy
(1894-1895), Novonikolaevskiy (1895-1903), Novonikolaevsk
54-57 d.n., 83-06 d.e. The city is situated at south-east of
West Siberian plant at along bank of Ob r.
Population: 404 000 (1939); 885 000 (1959); 1 312 400 (1989);
1 402 100 (1999).
Average temperatures: January -19, April 0, July +18, October
(from 1985, 2 lines), tram, trolleybus. A port at Ob r.
map of the city
Engineering including energy and electro technical: plants "Sibelectrotyazhmash",
of electrothermal equipment etc. Machine-tool industry: plant of
heavy machine-tools and hydropresses, machine-tool, of foundry machines
and automatic lines etc. Agricultural engineering: IA "Sibselmash".
Instrumentation, precise engineering, aircraft industry (the V.
P. Chkalov aviation IA), radio-electronic industry, textile engineering
(the plant "Sibtextilmash"). Metallurgical works, tin
combine. Chemical, chemical-pharmaceutical, light, food industries.
Manufacture of building materials. In this area grain-crops, potatoes,
vegetables, small fruits cultures are grown. Dairy-meat cattle husbandry,
poultry husbandry. Deposits of sand, building stones, brick clay,
keramzite raw materials, mineral waters.
education: Siberian branch of RAS and AMS, in Krasnoobsk
settlement Siberian branch of Russian academy of agricultural science.
University. Agrarian and technical universities. Medical academy.
Conservatoire. Institutes: arhitectural, engineering-building, of
engineers of water transport, of engineers of geodesy, of aerosurveying
and cartography, of engineers of rail transport, of national economy,
of social rehabilitation, pedagogical, of electrotechnical communications.
Branch of Tomsk university. There is the Akademical town which is
the of Sovetsky district at the bank of reservoir 28 km south of
Novosibirsk centre. It is a complex of research institutes, dwelling-houses,
comminity organizations. There is SIA "Vektor" (elaboration
of fundamental and applied problems of biotechnologies) in Koltsovo
Culture and museums: Theatres: "Krasny fakel",
of opera and ballet (the largest in Russia), of musical comedy,
youth "Globus", puppet-show, regional dramatic. Philharmonic.
Circus. Museums: of regional studies, geological and zoological,
of Siberian people history and culture. Art gallery. House-museum
of S. M. Kirov. Museum of the sun.
Architecture and remarkables: Cathedral (1897),
terminal, trade pavilion, theatre (1900-12). Dam of Novosibirsk
hydro-power station being in one of Novosibirsk district formed
It appeared in 1893 as Novaya Derevnya = 'New Village"
(unofficial name - Gusevka) owing to construction of railway bridge
over Ob in the time of laying of Trans-Siberian railway.
km of Transsib: the station Irkutsk-Passenger.
The centre of Irkutsk region RF.
T ime zone : Moscow +5.
Was founded: in 1661.
Former names: none.
Coordinates: 52-21 d.n., 104-11 d.e.
city is situated on Irkutsk-Cheremkovo plain, at inflowing of
Irkut r. in Angara.
Population: 250 000 (1939); 366 000 (1959); 626 100 (1989);
592 400 (1999).
Average temperatures: January -21, April +1, July +17, October
Tram, trolleybus. A port at Angara r., a pier at Irkutsk reservoir.
map of the city
Engineering - plants: of heavy engineering, machine-tool, repair-mechanical.
Drills for gold-mining and diamond industries, blast-furnace equipment,
cardan shafts, lathes etc. are produced. Micaprocessing factory
- details for radio electronic industry. Manufacture of building
materials, concrete product. Food industry: tea-weighing, pasta
factories, formula-feed and mill plants. Light industry: 2 clothing
IA, furniture and footwear firms, knitting and pimy-rolling mills,
education: Irkutsk scientific centre of RAS Siberian branch
consists of 9 institutes including Institute of geography and Limnological
institute. University (since 1918, was founded by Kolchak), medical,
technical, pedagogical, universities, university of foreign languages.
Economical, agricultural academies. Institute of engineers of rail
transport. High school of militia, The A. N. Tupolev high war aviation-technical
school. Branches of Moscow institute of engineers of civil aviation
and Moscow commercial university.
Culture and museums: Theatres: academical dramatic,
musical, children's, puppet-show, of popular drama, of Pilgrims.
Philharmonic and organistic hall. Cicrus. Museums: of regional studies,
art in which pictures of Repin, Aivazovskiy, Surikov and other famous
painters are displayed. Memorial complex "Decembrists in Irkutsk".
Museum-monument of ice-breaker "Angara". Museum of the
Architecture and remarkables: The oldest in Eastern
Siberia Sudarium church (1706-10; the bell tower 1758-62 was built
at the place of the porch, architect M. I. Dolgikh), Epiphany cathedral
(1718-31), Sign monastery (was founded in 1689) with church of Sign
(1757-62), Trinity church (1763-78) and others. So-called White
house (former Sibiryakov mansion, 1900-04). There is the museum
of architecture and ethnography of Angara area peoples "Taltsy"
close to Irkutsk - one of the largest open air museums of wooden
architecture in Russia. Sudarium tower (1667) and Kazan church (1679)
of Ilimsk ostrog, homestead Siberian wooden housing estate of the
19 c.; petroglyphic painting of 6-3 thousand B.C. from Kamennye
islands at Angara. There is wooden Nikola church (the 1840th) at
the back of Krestovy nick, 70 km south-east of Irkutsk in old Listvyanka
village. There is 2-stepped Sudarium church (1771-79) to the north
of Irkutsk in Urik village; the grave of Decembrist N. M. Muravyev
is inside the church fence. Kazan church (1804) at the east of Urik
village in Ust'-Kuda village. In 1970 Irkutsk was reckoned in protected
Russian cities with preservation of old lay-out and housing estate,
and in spring 2000 - it was the first Russian city reckoned into
Protectorat of World Heritage YUNESKO for the unique wooden architecture.
The monument to builders of Great Siberian Way.
Irkutsk takes up the territory of over 300 sq. km. It was laid by
the group of Russian explorers headed by boyar son Yakov Pokhabov
and in the beggining was a small wooden fortress. The ostrog sprang
up at high non-callow bank and occupied the cape formed by the bend
of Angara r. and the mouth of Ushakovka r. named Ida in that time.
Upbuilt at "pleasing place" Irkutsk ostrog prepossesed
at them who were in it. In 1675 the minister to China Nikolay Spafariy
went via it and wrote "... ostrog is good by its structure,
and more than 40 dwelling Cossack and civil homesteads are there
and the palce is very granary". Already in 1682 the ostrog
became the centre of waywodedom, in 1686 it was incorporated and
the blazon was confirmed and 4 years later the stamp was granted.
Favourable geographic position of Irkutsk contrubuted to its formation.
Since the huge territory up to Pacific ocean was added to Russia
in the XVII-XVIII c.c. Irkutsk found itself in the centre of numerous
trade ways of the all Eastern Siberia. From 1803 to 1822 Irkutsk
was the centre of the largest territory of Russia in all its history
(of cource, excluding its capitals - Moscow and Saint-Petersburg)
- Irkutsk general province, in which besides Eastern Siberia, Far
East, Chukotka and Alaska were in. Decembrists exercised great influence
on cultural development of the city. All goups of exiles leaving
through Baikal stopped in Irkutsk. Here for some months remarkable
Russian women waited for permission for trip to theirs husbands
(Decembrists). Decembrists completed hard labour were settles in
villages around Irkutsk. Later Trubetskoy and Volkonskiy families
lived in the city. In the second half of the XVIII c. the city had
significant scientific potential. Here E. G. Laksman, the disciple
of M. V. Lomonosov, worked. Siberian branch of Russian geographic
society opened in Irkutsk in 1851 was very significant for science
development. In the 80-th participants of revolutionary events in
Poland, later prominent scientists of Russia V. I. Dybovskiy, A.
L. Chekanovskiy, I. D. Cherskiy were its members. They studied Baikal
and Lena. Here distinguished scinetist, researcher of Siberia V.
A. Obrichev worked. In Irkutsk first in eastern Siberia a large
telescope appeared. It was ordered in 1909 from Germany for money
gathered by fundraising.
km of Transsib: the station Ulan-Ude.
The centre of Buryatia republic of RF.
Time zone : Moscow +5.
Was founded: in 1689.
Former names: Verkhneudinskiy (1689-1775), Verkhneudinsk (1775-1934).
Coordinates: 51-53 d.n., 107-39 d.e. The city is situated
in Trans-Baikalia in Selenga r. valley, at its right bank,
between the ranges Khamar-Daban and Ulan-
South part of the city is crossed by Uda r. (Selenga tributary).
Population: 125 700 (1939); 174 000 (1959); 352 700 (1989);
370 700. (1999).
Average temperatures: January -27, April +1, July +19, October
Tram. A pier at Selenga r.
map of the city
Engineering and metal working: plants - aviation, lcoomotive-carriage,
instrument-making, ship-building yard, "Teplopribor",
"Buryatformash", of bridge metalwork etc. Food (combines:
meat-cannery, mill, dairy plant etc.), light (fine-cloth combine
etc.), woodworking industries. Enterprises of building materials
industry (including large glass works).
education: Buryatian scientific centre of RAS Siberian
branch with research institutes of hard and social sciences, geology-chemical,
branch of India-Tibetan medicine bioactives researches. Institutes:
agricultural, pedagogical; East Siberian - technological and of
Culture and museums: Theatres: Buryatian of opera
and ballet, the Kh. Namsaraev Buryatian of drama, the A. F. Bestuzhev
Russian dramatic, puppet-show. Philharmonic. Museums: the M. N.
Khangalov of Buryatia history, the C. S. Sampilov art, ethnographic
of Transbaikalian peoples, of Buryatia nature, geological.
Architecture and remarkables: Odigitrievskiy cathedral
(1714), church of Trinity (the end of the 18 - the beginning of
the 19 c.c.), the Large and Small Burse and Guest courtyard (1803-56,
architect A.P. Losev).
It was founded in 1666 as Cossack winter quarters at Uda r. for
'yasak' duty from Tunguses and Buryats. In 1689 Verkhneudinskiy
ostrog was built. From 1690 administrative centre of western Trans-Baikalia.
Part of Russia since 1775, first provincial, since 1783 capital
city Verkhneudinsk of Irkutsk vicegernecy (later - province). Since
1822 district centre of Irkutsk province, since 1851 - the centre
of once more formed Transbaikalian region. Favourable economy-geographic
position of Verkhneudinsk contrubuted to transformation of the city
to the large trade centre of Trans-Baikalia. Via Kyakhta and Verkhneudinsk
commerce with China proceeded. In 1899 via Verkhneudinsk Trans-Siberian
way passed. Verkhneudinsk fair to the end of the 19 c. has a turnover
up to 2 mln. roubles. In April - Octoer of 1920 Verkhneudinsk was
the capital of Far East republic (DVR). In 1921-22 - the centre
of autonomous region of Buryats entering in DVR. From 1923 the capital
of Buryat-Mongolian ASSR, in 1958-92 - of Buryatian ASSR. In 1934
Verkhneudinsk was renamed to Ulan-Ude (Red Uda).
km of Transsib: the station Vladivostok, island type
The centre of Primorski territory RF.
Was founded: in 1860.
Time zone : Moscow +7.
Former names: none.
Coordinates: 48-12 d.n., 131-58 d.e. Vladivostok is situated
by amphitheatre on hills of south-end of Muravyev-Amurskiy
peninsula, around Zolotoy Rog Bay,
along eastern coastline of Amur bay of Sea of Japan.
Population: 206 500 (1939); 291 000 (1959); 633 800 (1989);
610 300 (1999).
Average temperatures: January -14, April +4, July +18, October
Tram, trolleybus. Seaport.
The end of Transsib.
map of the city
Vladivostok is a significant industrial centre. Engineering including
shipbuilding and ship repairs, manufacture of equipment for fish
and woodworking industries, mining equipment. Plants: "Dalzavod",
"Dalpribor", "Radiopribor", "Metallist",
tool etc. Food (fish combine, meat-preserving plant, confectionery
etc.), of building materials (plant of concrete product etc.) industries.
Vladivostok is the base of fisheryand getting of seafoods.
education: Primorski branch of Russian geographic society.
Far East scientific centre RAS, Tikhookeanskiy research institute
of fish branch of producation (TINRO) and of oceanography, Tikhookeanskiy
institute of geography etc. University, technological institute.
Institutes: of technologic domestic servicing, technical of fish
industry, commercial, of arts, medical. The S. O. Makarov Tikhookeanskoe
high naval college, The G. I. Nevelskiy Sea academy.
Culture and museums: Theatres: dramatic, children's,
puppet show. Museums: of Far East steamship line, of Pacific ocean
fleet, TINRO, of regional studies, mineralogical. Art gallery. The
Arseniev united museum (including house-museums of Arseniev, of
K. A. Sukhanov etc.).
Architecture and remarkables: Seaquarium. There
is Botanical garden near Vladivostok. There is mud and seaside health
resort Sadgorod 26 km of Vladivostok.
Vladivostok area was exploredby Russian navigators in the 1850th.
The military port was founded by crew of Russian sailing-ship "Manchur"
in 1860 at the coast of deep-water, isolated from winds Zolotoy
Rog bay. It recived the name "Vladivostok". In 1871 the
main base of Siberian military fleet was moved to Vladivostok from
Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. Development of shipbuilding and other branches
of industry was accompanied by vladivostok consolidation as an administrative
centre. Regular steamship line connected Vladivostok with Saint-Petersburg
and Odessa in 1879. In 1880 Vladivostok (with Muravyev-Amurskiy
peninsula) was singled out in particular "military governoredom"
and was incorporated. From 1888 the centre of Primorskaya region.
In 1897 Khabarovsk - Vladivostok railway was built, in 1903 direct
railway communication with Moscow by Great Siberian Way was opened.
In the 1890th Vladivostok gradually transformed into the Russian
culture center at Far East. Vladivostok was the base for the expeditions
of Russian travellers and scientists N. M. Przhevalskiy, S. O. Makarov,
V. K. Arseniev, V. L. Komarov (later the president of USSR AS) etc.
In 1899 Eastern institute was opened in Vladivostok. After establishment
of Soviet power in 1917 in the city forces of Japanese, American
and English troops landed here. In 1920-22 Vladivostok was the centre
of Far East republic. From 1922 was included to RSFSR. From 1938
the centre of Primorski territory.